Although our measure of skin color was taken chronologically after collection of our arrest data, base skin color has been found to remain relatively constant with age Mayes et al. Additionally, the results of both the out-group and in-group appraisals illustrate the complexity of skin tone bias that was alluded to earlier in this paper. Although we know of no data source that currently contains both skin reflectance and sibling data, sibling fixed effects would be one useful strategy for better addressing unobserved family-level heterogeneity in future studies relating skin color to social outcomes such as arrest. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]; The Journal of Legal Studies. There are several limitations to the available data beyond those previously discussed. A ProPublica analysis found that African Americans and Native Americans were underrepresented in clinical trials for new drugs.
Because we hypothesize a pattern of associations between skin color and arrests by race that diverges from findings in studies of skin color and other social outcomes, caution is warranted in affirming that findings are not exclusive to our sample.
Discrimination based on skin color
Respondent Arrested on Percentage Skin Reflectance. Skin color discrimination in education affects individuals in different ways depending on gender. Whites also gave governors more responsibility for state improvements than they gave Obama for national ones. New England Journal of Medicine. Class, colorism, and rumor in the case of black Washington, DC. Exploring psychological distress among men. Dark men may also be disadvantaged during job interviews.